Mistra Arctic Futures at Arctic Frontiers

January 25th, 2013 | Posted by Lize-Marié van der Watt in News - (Comments Off on Mistra Arctic Futures at Arctic Frontiers)

Mistra Arctic Futures was well represented at the Arctic Frontiers Conference in Tromsø, Norway, 21-25 January 2013.

 

Lizé-Marie van der Watt from the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden and the project Assessing Arctic Futures presented her work on “Polar science organizations and security at the end of the Cold War”.

Kristofer Bergh and Ekaterina Klimenko from SIPRI and the project Arctic Futures presented their work on “What role for the military in a changing Arctic?” and “Russian Policy in the Arctic: strategic importance, ambitious plans and domestic constraints”, respectively.

Download the conference abstract book and read more.

Report from Arctic Games: The value of ecosystem services at risk from oil spills

May 24th, 2012 | Posted by Lize-Marié van der Watt in News | Publication - (Comments Off on Report from Arctic Games: The value of ecosystem services at risk from oil spills)

“The value of ecosystem services at risk from oil spills in the Barents Sea” is a new report from the research project Arctic Games.

The Arctic region supports a variety of globally valuable ecosystem services including climate regulation, provision of food, and aesthetic values that contribute to tourism and recreation. Although many ecosystem services are not directly priced in the global economic system, they provide value to society through their support of human well-being. Oil spills damage these ecosystem services leading to a loss of social well-being. The purpose of this paper is to consider the impacts of a future oil spill in the Lofoten-Barents Sea region by describing which ecosystem services are at risk, the types of social costs that may arise, and the possible economic values at stake.  This study suggests that the total costs to society of a future oil spill in the region may be significant.

This article will be presented at both the International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE) in Rio de Janeiro (16-19 June 2012), as well as the Ecosystem Services Partnership Conference in Portland, Oregon, USA (1-4 August 2012). It is written by environmental economists from Enveco Ltd., EnviroEconomics Sweden Consultancy (EESweden), the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), and the Centre for Economic and Financial Research in Russia (CEFIR). The study is a part of the “Arctic Games” project, funded through MISTRA’s “Arctic Futures in a Global Context” research programme.

Read more at the Arctic Games project webpage and download the report here.

Lofoten, Norway. Photo: Maria Noring

The Arctic is one of the most important oil-producing regions in the world, yet the area is particularly vulnerable to oil spill damages, leading to expensive and difficult clean-up and response, as well as slow ecological recovery. Rapidly melting Arctic ice leads to an increased risk of oil spills as both oil reserves and global transportation routes become more accessibility.

The potential loss in value attributable to public environmental assets like ecosystem services is important in order to guide key policy decisions related to (1) the social profitability of allowing extraction (2) the level and type of precautionary measures to avoid damages and (3) the level and type of spill response to reduce damages.

This report is the first to link oil spill impacts to the ecosystem services framework for the Lofoten- Barents Sea area. The framework underscores the importance of measuring environmental value when designing policy. Although spill prevention and response measures are costly, so is inaction. Information on the potential costs of an oil spill helps policy makers make sound economic trade-offs in determining appropriate measures.

The report finds that several ecosystem services are at risk from oil spills in the Barents Sea (e.g., biogeochemical cycling, habitat, food, recreation and scenery), but the exact impact is highly dependent on the type of oil, location, and time of year. Based on the economic activities in the area — in particular tourism and fishing — the social costs of an oil spill may be significant. (A parallel report produced by Arctic Games details the importance of the tourism and fishing sectors to the local economy, see Lofoten tourism futures; actors and strategies). Although oil spill impacts in other Arctic regions may vary, the risk is likely to increase as extraction and shipping activities increase across the region.

The ISEE conference at which this paper will be presented is held in connection to the Rio +20 Conference (20-22 June 2012). Rio +20 is organized by the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development 20 years after the historic Earth Summit in Rio, where countries adopted Agenda 21, a blueprint for sustainable development. In 2012 the conference will focus on a range of measures that can reduce poverty while promoting sustainable use of resources.

The authors include Linus Hasselström (Enveco), Scott Cole (EESweden), Cecilia Håkansson (KTH), Yulia Khaleeva (CEFIR), Maria Noring (KTH), and Åsa Soutukorva (Enveco).

This study is part of the Arctic Games research project within the Mistra Arctic Futures in a Global Context research program, funded by the Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (Mistra) and hosted by the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat. For more information about the programme, visit www.arcticfutures.se.

Report from Arctic Games: “Lofoten tourism futures; actors and strategies”

May 23rd, 2012 | Posted by Lize-Marié van der Watt in News | Publication - (Comments Off on Report from Arctic Games: “Lofoten tourism futures; actors and strategies”)

The future development of the Arctic can take many different paths: development by state-dominated sectors (e.g., military infrastructure, research stations etc); mega-conglomerates (e.g., mining towns or petroleum hubs); or organic clusters (e.g., small enterprises anchored in local communities). This study suggests that Lofoten’s current development strategy for tourism follows the latter approach, where many small actors in the northern communities of Lofoten work in cooperation. A new report is now released by the University of Nordland and the Arctic Games project, funded by the Mistra Arctic Futures in a Global Context programme.

Lofoten, Norway. Photo: Merete Kvamme Fabritius

The report, entitled Lofoten Tourism Futures; Actors and Strategies, is based on the findings of Research Fellow Merete Kvamme Fabritius and Professor Audun Sandberg (University of Nordland, Norway) and analyzes how natural preconditions, cultural heritage and changing consumer tastes within the global tourism industry can shape the strategies of actors on the local level.

Read more on the Arctic Games web page and download the report here.

The Lofoten tourism industry sells a unique outdoor asset. Its historic success can be attributed to a cooperative effort by local enterprises to profit from Lofoten’s unique environment as an attractive northern tourist destination. The foundation for the area’s attractiveness is multifaceted and combines the 1000+ year history of Lofoten fisheries and export of stockfish to the Mediterranean, a distinctive fishermen’s cultural heritage, local food traditions and a new-born global demand for active tourist experiences (e.g., excitement tourism). This combination of assets can be referred to as the Lofoten Tourism-Heritage-Food- and Excitement Cluster.

The Lofoten tourism clusters are changing and dynamic, yet they tend to be based on one of these foundations. Further, there is a strong interdependence between the local enterprises, which often rely on one another’s activities to ensure a profitable industry for all.

The report also explores possibilities for scaling-up some of the insights uncovered in the analysis of the Lofoten tourism sector to the greater Arctic scene. One of the key questions is whether such scaling would imply multilevel governance where local, regional and national governments play important roles, or whether this may instead lead to the development of constitutional choices by the Arctic Council that aim more specifically at benefiting peoples of the North. This research question will be explored in the course of the Arctic Games project in 2013.

Merete Kvamme Fabritius is a Research Fellow at the Nordland Research Institute. Her areas of research include the institutional preconditions for, and the development of, tourism. Audun Sandberg is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Nordland. His areas of research include resource governance, institutional analysis and coastal systems.

This study is part of the Arctic Games research project within the Mistra Arctic Futures in a Global Context research program, funded by the Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (Mistra) and hosted by the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat. For more information about the programme, visit www.arcticfutures.se.

Paper from SIPRI: Increased military capabilities in the Arctic reflect border demarcations

March 26th, 2012 | Posted by Lize-Marié van der Watt in News | Publication - (Comments Off on Paper from SIPRI: Increased military capabilities in the Arctic reflect border demarcations)

The current build-up of military capabilities in the Arctic area by the five Arctic littoral states—Canada, Denmark, Norway, Russia and the United States—is not necessarily cause for concern, according to a new SIPRI background paper launched today ahead of this week’s meeting of the Arctic Council in Stockholm. 

The background paper, entitled Military Capabilities in the Arctic, is based on the findings of SIPRI Senior Researcher Siemon Wezeman and shows that while governments of the five Arctic states have made protection of their Arctic territory a priority, the military build-up is limited.

Read more and download the background paper

The effects of climate change are making the Arctic more accessible to economic activity—including exploitation of oil, gas and fish—and increased commercial traffic. Arctic governments have responded with increased attention to the region in several fields, including the military.

However, rather than projecting power over the Arctic as a whole, the increased military capabilities described in the background paper are generally limited to forces and equipment for policing and protection of recognized national territories and territorial waters.

Military build-up occurring but cooperation remains the goal

Military interest in the region does exist. Canada, Denmark and Norway are moving forces into their respective Arctic regions and acquiring weapons and equipment for specific Arctic use. Russia has also started to expand its Arctic military capabilities, while the USA’s Arctic security concerns still play only a minor role in its overall defence policy.

Although some tensions have emerged in the region, cooperation, not conflict, is more visible in the Arctic. Norway and Russia have settled a 40-year border dispute in the Barents Sea and Arctic states are enjoying stable and peaceful bilateral relations. Meanwhile, the Arctic Council is coming into its own as an important sub-regional organization.

The so-called ‘scramble for the Arctic’, whereby Arctic states compete for the region’s resources, has not proven to be a military affair. Rather, the littoral states remain committed to follow existing legal frameworks to settle border issues and claims on Arctic exclusive economic zones (EEZs) and continental shelves.

Confidence-building measures could be necessary in the future

‘While some media outlets, politicians and researchers have portrayed these changes in the capabilities of the Arctic littoral states as a significant and possibly destabilizing military build-up, the SIPRI analysis finds no basis for claims of an Arctic arms race,’ stated Wezeman.

Nevertheless, concerns about stability in the Arctic region cannot be discounted completely. Increases in military capabilities and activity, as well as overlapping claims of maritime economic zones and continental shelves in the Arctic, call for additional military confidence-building measures and regulation in order to mitigate risks of suspicion and misunderstanding in the future.

Siemon Wezeman is a Senior Researcher with the SIPRI Arms Transfers Programme. His areas of research include the monitoring of arms transfers, with particular focus on the Asia-Pacific region and North America, and the use of weapons in conflicts. He also researches military technology and transparency in arms transfers. Since 1992 he has worked with the Arms Transfers Programme.

This study is part of SIPRI’s project on Arctic security which is made possible by a generous grant from the Foundation for Strategic and Environmental Research, MISTRA. The project is one of several, connected to the MISTRA Arctic Futures in a Global Context programme, administered by the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat.

For information and interview requests contact Stephanie Blenckner (blenckner@sipri.org , +46 8 655 97 47) or Alexander Witt (witt@sipri.org , +46 8 655 97 96).